The country of Cthol Murgos is bordered on the east by the Sea of the East, a vast body of water created when the god Torak, having stolen the Orb of Aldur, used it to split the world asunder. On the north lies Mishrak ac Thull, home of the Thulls, and west lies Tolnedra. Major cities in Cthol Murgos include Rak Cthol and Rak Goska. The word 'Murgo' meant 'nobleman' or 'warrior'.
The inhabitants of the country are often described as "slant-eyed" and are known as Murgos, and are one of the Angarak races who worship Torak. A separate caste of priests known as Grolims are spread throughout Cthol Murgos, and they have sorcerous powers (while within the borders of Cthol Murgos, at any rate).
At the time of The Belgariad, Cthol Murgos is ruled by King Taur Urgas. The Urgas family demonstrates an hereditary disposition towards insanity in the male line, growing worse as each ages. Extreme fits of rage were not uncommon; Taur Urgas repeatedly beat his wives and even starting chewing on carpet when he was very angry. By the end of the The Belgariad Taur Urgas had been killed in battle by King Cho-Hag of Algaria (during the Battle of Thull Mardu), succeeded in The Malloreon his wife's illegitimate son Urgit, who was free of the hereditary insanity.
Cthol Murgos appears to be split up into military districts, each governed by a capital city (e.g., Rak Urga over the Urga Military District, Rak Cthan over the Cthan Military District, etc., Rak Hagga over the Hagga Military District) and each district / capital city is governed by a Murgo House, e.g., House of Cthan, House of Goska, House of Hagga, House of Gorut, House of Cthaka, House of Morcth, House of Araga, House of Urga, House of Verkat. The only areas not ruled by a house is 1) Rak Cthol, the headquarters of the Murgo Grolim priesthood, and this was ruled by Ctuchik, and 2) Mount Kahsha in the Great Desert of Araga, ruled by the elders of the Dagashi.
It's hinted in King of the Murgos that the mining regions are in the East ("Now that Zakath controls the mining regions in eastern Cthol Murgos, Urgit desperately needs money to finance the war he's got going on down there.")
There are also slight racial differences between Northern Murgos and Southern Murgos -- Hettar observed that northern Murgos and southern Murgos have slightly different armor, and the southerners have flatter faces and they're not quite so tall.